**2024**

**A nodal ghost method based on variational formulation and regular square grid for elliptic problems on arbitrary domains in two space dimensions**

This paper focuses on the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions, specifically addressing the challenges arising from irregular domains. Both finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM), face difficulties in dealing with arbitrary domains. The paper introduces a novel nodal symmetric ghost finite element method approach, which combines the advantages of FEM and FDM. The method employs bilinear finite elements on a structured mesh, and provides a detailed implementation description. A rigorous a priori convergence rate analysis is also presented. The convergence rates are validated with many numerical experiments, in both one and two space dimensions.

**2023**

**Kinetic derivation of a compressible Leslie–Ericksen equation for rarified calamitic gases** Nematic ordering describes the phenomenon where anisotropic molecules tend to locally align, like matches in a matchbox. This ordering can arise in solids (as nematic elastomers), liquids (as liquid crystals), and in gases. In the 1940s, Onsager described how nematic ordering can arise in dilute colloidal suspensions from the molecular point of view. However, the kinetic theory of nonspherical molecules has not, thus far, accounted for phenomena relating to the presence of nematic ordering.

In this work, we develop a kinetic theory for the behaviour of rarified calamitic (rodlike) gases in the presence of nematic ordering. Building on previous work by Curtiss, we derive from kinetic theory the rate of work hypothesis that forms the starting point for Leslie–Ericksen theory. We incorporate ideas from the variational theory of nematic liquid crystals to create a moment closure that preserves the coupling between the laws of linear and angular momentum. The coupling between these laws is a key feature of our theory, in contrast to the kinetic theory proposed by Curtiss and Dahler, where the couple stress tensor is assumed to be zero. This coupling allows the characterization of anisotropic phenomena arising from the nematic ordering. Furthermore, the theory leads to an energy functional that is a compressible variant of the classical Oseen–Frank energy (with a pressure-dependent Frank constant) and to a compressible analogue of the Leslie–Ericksen equations. The emergence of compressible aspects in the theory for nematic fluids enhances our understanding of these complex systems.

**When rational functions meet virtual elements: The lightning VEM** We propose a lightning Virtual Element Method that eliminates the stabilisation term by actually computing the virtual component of the local VEM basis functions using a lightning approximation. In particular, the lightning VEM approximates the virtual part of the basis functions using rational functions with poles clustered exponentially close to the corners of each element of the polygonal tessellation. This results in two great advantages. First, the mathematical analysis of a priori error estimates is much easier and essentially identical to the one for any other non-conforming Galerkin discretisation. Second, the fact that the lightning VEM truly computes the basis functions allows the user to access the point-wise value of the numerical solution without needing any reconstruction techniques. The cost of the local construction of the VEM basis is the implementation price that one has to pay for the advantages of the lightning VEM method, but the embarrassingly parallelizable nature of this operation will ultimately result in a cost-efficient scheme almost comparable to standard VEM and FEM.

**2022**

**PINNs and GaLS: An Priori Error Estimates for Shallow Physically Informed Neural Network Applied to Elliptic Problems** Recently Physically Informed Neural Networks have gained more and more popularity to solve partial differential equations, given the fact they escape the course of dimensionality. First Physically Informed Neural Networks are viewed as an underdetermined point matching collocation method then we expose the connection between Galerkin Least Square (GALS) and PINNs, to develop an a priori error estimate, in the context of elliptic problems. In particular, techniques that belong to the realm of the least square finite elements and Rademacher complexity analysis will be used to obtain the above-mentioned error estimate.

**A Priori Error Analysis For A Penalty Finite Element Method Recently** Partial differential equations on domains presenting point singularities have always been of interest for applied mathematicians; this interest stems from the difficulty to prove regularity results for non-smooth domains, which has important consequences in the numerical solution of partial differential equations. In my thesis I address those consequences in the case of conforming and penalty finite element methods. The main results here contained concerns a priori error estimates for conforming and penalty finite element methods with respect to the energy norm, the L2(Ω) norm in both the standard and weighted setting.